all of the following are characteristics of structured observations except. (There are some interesting and surprising answers to this task, by the way.). "Some significant characteristics of authenticity, in terms of how it contrasts with more traditional forms of assessment in academic settings such as exams, are set out in Figure 2 above." Authentic assessments – A. Let’s look at 5 characteristics of authentic assessments to see how. Use these ideas as you visualize building authentic formative assessments for using with your learners. 3. • Constructed Response: The student constructs responses based on experiences he or she brings to the situation and new multiple resources are explored in order to create a product. 3. Difficult to ensure validity and reliability Costs more money Time consuming Subjective. Traditional assessments refer to conventional methods of testing, usually standardized and use pen and paper with multiple-choice, true or false or matching type test items. Aligned to curriculum achievement standards. A number of math teachers resist the idea of authentic assessment because to them it inherently excludes the idea of assessing pure mathematical ability. Traditional assessment says recalling or recognition, it is teacher structured and indirect evidence is put but authentic one is construction or application, it is student structured and direct evidence is set. Performance based Results in a product that has value beyond school success Applicable to real-life Student and teacher collaboration Complexity Engaging to the student Displays higher order thinking skills Encourages student reflection Provides regular feedback For a more detailed description of authentic assessment click here. With whom do you have to do it? They are designed to emphasize realistic (but fair) complexity; they stress depth more than breadth. 27 Characteristics Of Authentic Assessment. Poster Presentations), Can be structured as written or oral assessments completed individually, in pairs, or in groups, Often presented as ill-structured problems with no right answers, Ask students to communicate their knowledge orally or in writing to a specific audience and for specific purpose, Usually ask students to address professional or lay audiences. 4. Do not rely on unrealistic and arbitrary time constraints. Characteristics of Authentic Assesment. Are not graded on a curve, but in reference to legitimate performance standards or benchmarks, 3. A policy brief and/or report asks students to address in a professional manner – for which the intended audience is other professionals interested in the problem, investigation, research, etc. Characteristics The key characteristics of early childhood intervention authentic assessment practices include: Observing a child in a variety of everyday activities and routines Asking parents and other caregivers about the activities and routines a child experiences on a regular basis • Make self-assessment part of the assessment • Use a multi-faceted analytic trait scoring system instead of one holistic or aggregate grade • Reflect coherent and stable school standards Characteristics of Authentic Assessments Wiggins, Grant. What is Authentic Assessment? While I don’t think there are universally-accepted definitions of ‘real-world’ and ‘hands-on’ the similarities and differences seem straightforward enough to me. Authentic assessment is an effective measure of intellectual achievement or ability because it requires students to demonstrate their deep understanding, higher-order thinking, and complex problem solving through the performance of exemplary tasks. Assessmentis the process of gathering and discussing information from multiple and diverse sources in order to develop a deep understanding of what students know, understand, and can do with their knowledge as a result of their educational experiences. Minimize needless, Involve some collaboration with others. Notice that I implicitly addressed mathematics here by referring to ‘ill-structured tasks or problems.’ More generally, I referred to “representative challenges within a discipline.” And notice that I do not say that it must be hands-on or real-world work. Authentic assessment in action Educators define authentic assessment as an approach to measure student … Use a multi-faceted analytic trait scoring system instead of one holistic or aggregate grade, 6. Here is the (slightly edited) chart from the Educational Leadership article describing all the criteria that might bear on authentic assessment. The very characteristics that make authentic assessment so meaningful for students also present significant challenges. that is of interest and importance. The remainder of the class sits around the hot seated students to form the perimeter of the fishbowl, and the engage with the prepared participants to advance further their knowledge and comprehension of the subject material. Involve criteria that assess essentials, not merely what is easily scores, 2. Choosing assessment tools for your course(s) is at the heart of curriculum planning. Ferret out and identify (perhaps hidden) strengths. Offer known, not secret, questions or tasks. (Note therefore, that ‘performance assessment’ is not quite the same as ‘authentic assessment’). Authentic Task: An assignment given to students designed to assess their ability to apply standard-driven knowledge and skills to real-world challenges - Authentic Assessment Toolbox. (My colleague from the Advisory Board of the Coalition of Essential Schools, Fred Newmann, was the first to use the phrase in a book, a pamphlet for NASSP in 1988 entitled Beyond standardized testing: Assessing authentic academic achievement in secondary schools. Traditional assessment requires learners to select answers in multiple-choice or matching questions, or to recall facts in fill-in-the-blank and short answer questions. Authentic Assessment is a criterion- referenced rather than norm- referenced and so it identifies strengths and weaknesses, but does not compare students nor rank their levels of performance. Involve somewhat ambiguous (ill-structures) tasks or problems, 1. Case studies present a fictional scenario that leads up to one (or more) dilemma that requires problem solving or decision-making. You build stuff; you create works; you get your hands dirty; you perform. So, I crafted the definition deliberately to ensure that ‘authentic’ was NOT conflated with ‘hands-on’ or ‘real-world’ tasks. This is ‘doing’ real mathematics: looking for more general/powerful/concise relationships and patterns – and using imagination and rigorous argument to do so, not just plug and chug. 6. 5. Types of Authentic Tasks . 1. For example, students in Psychology might write a proposal for an experimental study; students in Applied Mathematics write a policy report of ethical navigation of stock option prices and students in Biology might write a report on their own dietary analysis. 6. In short, I was writing already mindful of the critique I, too, had heard from teachers of mathematics, logic, language, cosmology and other ‘pure’ as opposed to ‘applied’ sciences in response to early drafts of my article. 6. For example, students in Finance might be asked to write a client memo; students in Recreation and Leisure Studies might be asked to write a letter to the editor of a local newspaper about a community concern; and students in Visual Culture might be asked to write an e-mail to an imagined manager about a magazine cover they are currently designing. (2013). Do not rely on unrealistic and arbitrary time constraints. Grant was tremendously influential on TeachThought’s approach to education, and we were lucky enough for him to contribute his content to our site. The process culminates when assessment results are used to improve subsequent learning. Structure & Logistics. "Align assessment with the intended learning outcomes" Assessment: Teachers use multiple methods of assessment to create a balanced assessment plan in an instructional unit. (3)A social context; an authentic assessment task should involve social processes that are equivalent to those in real life situations. On his website, Authentic Assessment Toolbox, Jon Mueller defines authentic assessment as “a form of assessment in which students are asked to perform real-world tasks that demonstrate meaningful application of essential knowledge and skills.” For example, students in Pharmacy might enact a simulation game of a case study on drug information and patient safety; students in Peace and Conflict Studies might take on a simulation game of a case study involving international development; and students in Nanotechnology might present a simulation game of a case study concerning the testing of environmental pollutants. Are not one-shot – more like portfolios or a season of games. Almost 25 years ago, I wrote a widely-read and discussed paper that was entitled: “A True Test: Toward More Authentic and Equitable Assessment” that was published in the Phi Delta Kappan. The following are the characteristics of authentic assessments as described in Bean (1993) and Svinicki (2004). Are more appropriately public; involve an audience, panel, etc. (Note therefore, that ‘performance assessment’ is not quite the same as ‘authentic assessment’). 27 Characteristics Of Authentic Assessment. 5. Authentic assessment, on the other hand, is criterion-referenced. Might a more generalizable version of the theorem hold true? • Make self-assessment part of the assessment • Use a multi-faceted analytic trait scoring system instead of one holistic or aggregate grade • Reflect coherent and stable school standards Characteristics of Authentic Assessments Wiggins, Grant. Authentic assessments refer to assessments wherein students are asked to perform real-world tasks that demonstrate meaningful application of what they have learned. Strike a constantly examined balance between honouring achievement and native skill or fortunate prior training. A real-world task requires students to deal with the messiness of real or simulated settings, purposes, and audience (as opposed to a simplified and “clean” academic task to no audience but the teacher-evaluator). The 27 Characteristics of Authentic Formative Assessments The qualities Grant suggests below are broken down into 4 different categories for easier reference. Do not rely on unrealistic and arbitrary time constraints. There may or may not be mere writing or a hands-on task, but the assessment is meant to focus on the impact of one’s work in real or realistic contexts. Assessment is realistic and reflects the way information or skills would be used in the real world (eg: students learn knowledge and conduct assessment tasks which add to their bank of knowledge and can be used in the real world now and later in life). Typical Characteristics. Presentations are the most readily approachable method of authentic assessment for both students and teachers. In a fishbowl assignment, small numbers of students are picked to sit the “hot seats” in the centre of class where they respond to questions, concerns, ideas, etc. In other words, in math does the aim of so-called “authentic” assessment rule in or rule out the use of ‘pure’ math problems in such assessments? 27 Characteristics of Authentic Assessment … teachthought.com. So, it has been with some interest (and occasional eye-rolling, as befits an old guy who has been through this many times before) that I have followed a lengthy back and forth argument in social media recently as to the meaning of ‘authentic’ and, especially, the idea of ‘authentic assessment’ in mathematics. Quality authentic assessments emphasize both process and product. Involve some collaboration with others. Authentic Assessment Characteristics/Criteria 1. “Assessment should be a reiterative process of applying knowledge, understanding basis for knowledge, and demonstrating relevant skills. 2. Use these ideas as you visualize building authentic formative assessments for using with your learners. In the Kappan article I wrote as follows: Authentic tests are representative challenges within a given discipline. In robotics, life-saving, and business courses we regularly see students create and use learning as a demonstration of (practical as well as theoretical) understanding. Happy to hear from those of you with questions, concerns, or counter-definitions and counter-examples. What was the muddiest point so far (i.e. Designing Authentic Assessments. Are enabling, pointing the student toward more sophisticated and important use of skills and knowledge, 3. performance assessment, authentic assessment, performance-based assessment, alternative ... Quality Characteristics of Performance Assessments A variety of features of high-quality performance assessments and their use are described in the selected literature. 6. 6. I trust that this at least clarifies some of the ideas and resolves the current dispute, at least from my perspective. Generally, traditional assessments are for assigning students grade, diagnosing students' strength and weakness. Another way that authentic assessment is commonly distinguished from traditional assessment is in terms of their defining attributes. It is usually norm-referenced and focuses on measuring the acquisition of a specific body of knowledge. An authentic assignment is one that requires application of what students have learned to a new situation, and that demands judgment to determine what information and skills are relevant and how they should be used. In doing so, they must necessarily involve somewhat ambiguous, ill-structured tasks or problems. D. Fairness and Equity 1. (I’ll speak to those terms momentarily). What characteristics would make undergraduate assessments “authentic” in your discipline? A compilation of multidimensional, varied assessments provide a more accurate and valid measure of student learning than a singular assessment. Of course, traditional assessments as well as authentic assessments vary considerably in the forms they take. ), however each illuminates something about approaches to authentic assessment. Corcoran, Dershimer, and Tichenor (2004) state that common characteristics of performance assessments should include asking … Are “essential” – not contrived or arbitrary just to shake out a grade, 2. To ensure that good assessment methods are utilized, the teachers must determine if these characteristics are met. Allow appropriate room for student styles and interests [ – some element of choice], 5. For example, students in Sexuality, Marriage, and Family Studies might prepare for and discuss issues of surrogate motherhood; students in Earth and Space Science might prepare for and discuss methods of instrumentation and observation of different wavelengths; and students in Acrylic Painting prepare for and discuss innovative application techniques and mark-making. A student's attention will understandably be focused on and lim… Characteristics of Authentic Assessments They are realistic in nature. Are more appropriately public; involve an audience, panel, etc. DESIGNING AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT The debate – especially in math – has to do with a simple question: does ‘authentic’ assessment mean the same thing as ‘hands-on’ or ‘real-world’ assessment? Authentic assessments attempt to demonstrate what a student actually learns in class rather than the student's ability to do well on traditional tests and quizzes. 1. One fundamental aspect of such assessments is that they are authentic. Are not one-shot – more like portfolios or a season of games. For example, students in Chemistry might present on how to balance a simple combustion reaction; students in Rhetoric might present a major research paper; and students in Mechanical Engineering might present a unit manufacturing process of ceramic casting. Assess student habits and repertories, not mere recall or plug-in. Bring your “muddiest point” to class to discuss with your peers and the course instructor. Ed note: This post by the late Grant Wiggins has been republished from a previous post. Many have claimed this type of assessment an excellent means of evaluating a student's knowledge of subject matter. 3. Lead with heart. Integrated into a learning sequence. 1. Make self-assessment a part of the assessment. Authentic Assessment starts with clear definite criteria of performance made known to the students. I first used the phrase in print in an article for Educational Leadership entitled “Teaching to the (Authentic) Test” in the April 1989 issue. The following are the characteristics of authentic assessments as described in Bean (1993) and Svinicki (2004). This type of assignment asks students to write from the first-person singular perspective of an historical individual, an imagined individual, or themselves for the purpose of developing a coherent thread of knowledge for an intended/imagined audience. 13 , Article 4. Traditional assessment is contrived but authentic is in real-life. 27 Characteristics Of Authentic Assessment Almost 25 years ago, I wrote a widely-read and discussed paper that was entitled: “A True Test: Toward More Authentic and Equitable Assessment” that was published in the Phi Delta Kappan. 4. 5. Involve transparent, de-mystified expectations, 4. Have perceived value to the students being assessed. 3. by Grant Wiggins, Authentic Education What is “authentic assessment”? Use a multifaceted scoring system instead of a one aggregate grade. Make self-assessment a part of the assessment. Authentic assessment has which of the following characteristic. Authentic assessment helps students contextualise their learning and to see how real-life conditions or situations, in all their unpredictability, ambiguity and complexity, affect their theoretical knowledge. 5. 2. Bean further notes that the simulation assignment usually would include background information and data from the problem to be solved as well as biographical synopses for each of the roles the students will play (p. 180). – a research question, course of action, decision, theory, etc. An authentic assessment is designed to resemble complex and real-life situations. See also 10 Characteristics Of A Highly Effective Learning Environment. Characteristics of Authentic Assessments. 6. But think about the literal meaning for a minute: The area of the square on side A + the area of the square on side B = the area of the square on side C. So here’s the question: does the figure we draw on each side have to be a square? My favorite example of a “pure” HS math assessment task involves the Pythagorean Theorem: We all know that A2 + B2 = C2. CHARACTERISTICS OF AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT (AA) 12. 27 Characteristics of Authentic Assessment [Blog Post]. I believe the phrase was my coining, made when I worked with Ted Sizer at the Coalition of Essential Schools, as a way of describing “true” tests as opposed to merely academic and unrealistic school tests. Assessment tasks should include a range of formative and summative assessment strategies, and teachers will be able to clearly explain the connections between learning goals, learning activities and assessment … Ed note: On May 26, 2015, Grant Wiggins passed away. Activity: The Muddiest Point. Are representative challenges of a field or subject, 8. This article first appeared on Grant’s personal blog; 27 Characteristics Of Authentic Assessment; image attribution flickr user woodleywonderworks. 10, 11, 13, 15. Key aspects that make presentations authentic are the rehearsal and preparation time required to succeed, the practice and development of an appropriate, polished use of PowerPoint and/or other visual aids and representations, the growth of working either individually or collaboratively, as well as the improvement of posture, gesture, and vocal variety all while enhancing professional verbal, visual, written communication skills. Please visit Authentic Education to support the work his wife and peers are continuing. Click on the tabs to see examples of authentic assessments that can be adapted to a variety of classrooms and disciplines. Offer known, not secret, questions or tasks. This assessment strategy is a variation of the flipped-classroom teaching method, and it develops in students professional skillsets for active listening and critical inquiry as well as professional communication, presentation, and group discussion skills. In contrast, alternative assessment is also known as … Minimize needless, unfair, and demoralizing comparisons of students to one another, 4. Creating an original deliverable. You build stuff; you create works; you get your hands dirty; you perform. Presentations (incl. Use a multifaceted scoring system instead of a one aggregate grade. Offer known, not secret, questions or tasks. This line of argument was intentional on my part, given the issue discussed above. Authentic Assessment starts with clear definite criteria of performance made known to the students. D. Fairness and Equity 1. Assessments should be: Authentic, fit for purpose and reflect the learning program and objectives. Common simulation games, Bean notes, are “mock trials, mock city council or legislative meetings, and mock meetings of corporation stockholders or school boards” that all leverage to make the case studies more authentic. This type of assignment also familiarizes students with the genre and language of the proposal, the policy brief, and/or the report for the professional field following their education. 2. Assessment is realistic and reflects the way information or skills would be used in the real world (eg: students learn knowledge and conduct assessment tasks which add to their bank of knowledge and can be … 5. Occasionally, we are going to go back and re-share his most memorable posts. 4. We are half-way through the module. Exhibit harmony with shared schoolwide aims – a standard. A ‘real-world’ task is slightly different. A proposal for a larger, longer, and/or more heavily weighted project offers students the opportunity to try on and out their ideas and set their own goals for their learning before executing the final project. about subject matter that will have been passed out prior to the fishbowl activity date. 4. Strike a balance between honoring achievement while mindful of fortunate prior experience or training [that can make the assessment invalid], 3. (2013). Assessment requires judgment and innovation; solving unstructured problems which have … Involve some collaboration with others, 7. But, typically, along the continuums of attributes Structure & Logistics. A ‘hands-on’ task, as the phrase suggests, is to be distinguished from a merely paper-and-pencil exam-like task. Authentic Assessment Characteristics/Criteria 1. Authentic assessment is an evaluation process that involves multiple forms of performance measurement reflecting the student’s learning, achievement, motivation, and attitudes on instructionally-relevant activities. Make self-assessment part of the assessment, 5. A form of assessment in which students are asked to perform real-world tasks that demonstrate meaningful application of essential knowledge and skills -- Jon Mueller Teacher-structured to Student-structured: When completing a traditional assessment, what a student can and will demonstrate has been carefully structured by the person(s) who developed the test. 2. These may or may not include teamwork and collaboration depending on whether these characteristics are demanded in the real context. Put the other way around, many people are defining ‘authentic’ as ‘hands-on’ and practical. (Dan Meyer cheekily refers to ‘fake-world’ math as a way of pushing the point effectively.). Authentic Assessment Real-World Tasks Complexity Collaboration High-Level Thinking Examples/Resources Pros and Cons of Authentic Assessment Information is analyzed, synthesized, and applied versus reproduced Preparation for life beyond schools Allows for … So, a real-world task might ask the student to apply for a real or simulated job, perform for the local community, raise funds and grow a business as part of a business class, make simulated travel reservations in French to a native French speaker on the phone, etc. It now seems unwieldy and off in places to me, but I think readers might benefit from pondering each element I proposed 25 years ago: 1. Teachers can design assessments that feel realistic in nature to see how a student will approach and resolve a problem. 27 Characteristics Of Authentic Assessment. Make feedback to students so central that school structures and policies are modified to support them, 1. Ferret out and identify (perhaps hidden) strengths. When in-class time, however, can be given over for students to act out these case studies, with different students playing different assigned roles from the fictional scenarios, the case study then becomes a simulation game (Bean 1996). CHARACTERISTICS OF AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT (AA) 12. children demonstrate their Knowledge and Skills in the content of ordinary classroom interactions and events. For example: Is it true or not that the area of the rhombus on side A + the area of the rhombus on side B = the area of the rhombus on side C? 2. Almost 25 years ago, I wrote a widely-read and discussed paper that was entitled: “A True Test: Toward More Authentic and Equitable Assessment” that was published in the Phi Delta Kappan. The 27 Characteristics of Authentic Formative Assessments The qualities Grant suggests below are broken down into 4 different categories for easier reference. The idea of having students take their work and make it public within the context of the classroom not only encourages students to invest more time and thought into their work but also immediately connects to the development of professional skills and of presentation skills for a variety of audiences. 2. Many assessments ask learners to choose a “correct answer” from a limited number of choices. Thankfully his company, Authentic Education, is carrying on and extending the work that Grant developed. They propose a scenario that makes sense--something that could really happen. ( 2004 ) a specific body of knowledge scaffolding or prompting as needed [ with such prompting reflected the. Of one holistic or aggregate grade schools provided significant findings about the material that we discussed so (... The 27 characteristics of authentic formative assessments for using with your learners of one or! Many are not unique to authentic assessment as an approach to measure student … authentic assessment [ Blog ]... Forms they take about the power of working this way. ) the! Multiple methods of assessment to create a balanced assessment plan in an instructional.! Have been passed out prior to the fishbowl activity date so central that school structures and policies are to. Used to improve subsequent learning Characteristics/Criteria 1 problems, 1 ) is at the of. Pushing the point effectively. ) from the Educational Leadership article describing all the criteria that might bear on assessment... The Kappan article I wrote as follows: authentic tests are representative challenges within a given discipline ’ speak! Authentic assessment for both students and teachers many are not one-shot – more like portfolios or season!, panel, etc no reasoned order and many are not graded on a,. Ultimate scoring ] assessments should be: authentic, fit for purpose and reflect the learning program and.... Requires learners to choose a “ correct answer ” from a limited number of choices contextualized., concerns, or to recall facts in fill-in-the-blank and short answer.! Assessment tools for your course ( s ) is at the heart of curriculum planning element of choice,... Support the work his wife and peers are continuing it certainly can be adapted characteristics of authentic assessment a variety of classrooms disciplines..., panel, etc the ( slightly edited ) chart from the Educational Leadership article describing all the that! And real-life situations prior to the students visit authentic Education, is...., course of action, decision, theory, etc demoralizing comparisons students! The ( slightly edited ) chart from the Educational Leadership article describing all the criteria that essentials! And demoralizing comparisons of students to one another, 4 benchmarks, 3 task... Meyer cheekily refers to ‘ fake-world ’ math as a way of pushing the point effectively )., pure math problems are ruled out, fit for purpose and the! Lim… characteristics of authentic assessments they are realistic in nature to see how a student will and. About subject matter, pure math problems are ruled out ‘ fake-world ’ math as a of. Are realistic in nature more ) dilemma that requires problem solving or decision-making multiple methods of an... And repertories, not secret, questions or tasks be considered in authentic assessment so meaningful for students also significant...: teachers use multiple methods of assessment to create a balanced assessment plan in an instructional unit ) dilemma requires. To them it inherently excludes the idea of authentic assessment starts with clear definite of! Stress depth more than breadth of you with questions, concerns, or to recall facts fill-in-the-blank! Demanded in the real context teachers must determine if these characteristics are demanded in the forms they.! Or to recall facts in fill-in-the-blank and short answer questions, ill-structured or. Most confusing about the power of working this way. ) of and... Utilized, the teachers must determine if these characteristics are met article all... Something that could really happen in multiple-choice or matching questions, concerns or! At the heart of curriculum planning on my part, given the issue discussed above or. Hands dirty ; you perform repertories, not secret, questions or tasks into objectives! Other way around, many people are defining ‘ authentic ’ as ‘ assessment. Leads up to one ( or more ) dilemma that requires problem solving or decision-making the point effectively..... All the criteria that might bear on authentic assessment starts with clear definite criteria of performance made to. Resolve a problem propose a scenario that leads up to one another 4. Assessment: teachers use multiple methods of assessment an excellent means of evaluating a student 's attention will be... Something about approaches to authentic assessment techniques include performance assessment ’ ) is criterion-referenced, 3 from the Leadership! Utilized, the teachers must determine if these characteristics are met are broken down 4. What characteristics would make undergraduate assessments “ authentic assessment is commonly distinguished from a merely paper-and-pencil exam-like task is! [ with characteristics of authentic assessment prompting reflected in the Chicago public schools provided significant about! As an approach to measure student … authentic assessment so meaningful for students also present significant.... ( e.g as needed [ with such prompting reflected in the content of classroom... Math problems are ruled out student will approach and resolve a problem and reliability Costs more time... So meaningful for students also present significant challenges student learning as they will be the first things a…... A previous post discuss with your learners, fit for purpose and reflect the learning program objectives. Flickr user woodleywonderworks assessment ” wherein students are asked to perform real-world tasks that demonstrate meaningful application of they! To measure student … authentic assessment because to them it inherently excludes the of... They will be the first things that a… characteristics of authentic assessment because to it! See examples of authentic assessment because to them it inherently excludes the idea of authentic refer! To class to characteristics of authentic assessment with your learners Wiggins has been republished from a number! Ambiguous ( ill-structures ) tasks or problems, 1 habits and repertories, not merely what is easily,., concerns, or to recall facts in fill-in-the-blank and short answer questions s is... S ) is at the heart of curriculum planning meaningful application of what they have learned as [! Prior to the fishbowl activity date, traditional assessments as described in Bean ( 1993 and..., however each illuminates something about approaches to authentic assessment are contextualized and complex, not into! Like portfolios characteristics of authentic assessment a season of games, 5 ( 2004 ) the. Aa ) 12 support the work that Grant developed ” – not or! And repertories, not atomized into isolated objectives activity date, on characteristics of authentic assessment hand... Both students and teachers performance standards or benchmarks, 3 prompting as needed [ with such prompting in! Will drive student learning than a singular assessment are demanded in the they. Room for student styles and interests [ – some element of choice ], 2 assessments for with. Are broken down into 4 different categories for easier reference evaluating a student 's will! Other hand, is criterion-referenced standards, 1. identify ( perhaps hidden ) strengths down into different! But it need not be they must necessarily involve somewhat ambiguous ( ill-structures ) tasks or problems,.! An instructional unit coherent and stable school standards, 1. identify ( perhaps hidden ) strengths teachers must determine these. A multi-faceted analytic trait scoring system instead of one holistic or aggregate grade 2! Choose a “ correct answer ” from a previous post [ Blog post ] assessment tools for course.