In a nutshell, success in independent learning only requires three key qualities: 1. Toward a Theory of Independent Learning and Teaching. In other words, you need to be able to do your own research instead of expecting a teacher to give you all the background material you might need. 661-679. RESEARCH FOUNDATIONS The topic of “studying” was specifically addressed by neither educators nor research psycholo-gists for many years, because it was presumed that students developed and generalized these (Kesten) Kesten emphasizes that independent learning is not “individualized learning nor learning … Worksheet 1.1, Checklist of Strategies to Promote Independent Learning. During the initial meeting for my current MA Module, we were asked to write down a definition of what we believed ‘Independent Learning’ to be.Here is what I came up with… Independent Learning is learning that is self-directed. Instructional scaffolding is regarded as the impinged outcome of the converging impact of both the school of thoughts (the learning theories) and assessment techniques that suit best its instructional design. The development of the range of abilities involved in becoming a self-regulating, independent learner are conceptualised in terms of research and theory relating to the development of 'metacognitive' abilities and dispositions. While the application of modem technology may glamorize distance education, literature in the field reveals a conceptually fragmented framework lacking in both theoretical foundation and programmatic research. Independent learning is when an individual is able to think, act and pursue their own studies autonomously, without the same levels of support you receive from a teacher at school. This document provides a list of key learning outcomes to promote the development of independent learning attributes and the promotion of independent lifelong learners. endobj 44, No. Although the term independent learning has broad definition, in the context of higher education, it generally refers to students taking responsibility, directing and regulating their own learning process. An ability to take the initiative – to work on your own within the constraints of the An institution-wide project to enhance student progression, learning as construction, whereas Vygotsky believed in the “activity theory perspective that sees learning as appropriation” (Dahl, 1996, p. 2). definition of independent learning. The human behaviour has a cause-and-effect relationship with objective environment. On the other hand, the cognitivists look at graded questions in taking assessment i… A good level of motivation – that is, a basic interest in your subject mixed with a degree of curiosity, a desire to find out more 2. %���� We can learn from famous inventors whose failure in the process became the seed for amazing success down the road. This expectation exists at other levels of education, particularly as students progress to … The This transition may be especially difficult for international students who may be used to more support and direction. Title: Toward a Theory of Independent Learning and Teaching Created Date: 20160808081954Z Taylor also found them to be motivated and persistent, independent, self-disciplined, self-confident and goal-oriented. Trahar (2007) gives a personal and Evaluation included students endobj the “Independent Learning” or “I-Learn” Framework (Glasgow Caledonian University, 2008). Why, What caused, How did it occur, What if, How does it compare, or . 1 0 obj %PDF-1.2 %���� Piaget’s theory encourages hands-on learning. J��Ĝx��C\�+z�Ը'7�������)^�O����X�(=7~@��6Vz��0�� �����u��-�����~t�k���f��V�.���׮ٯ����ELPy�(�s� R�8=s Է�R!�9 u���D�ɁO����y����66��/^V�S�櫹�U���\�>6�ب�A>v��=�����Y independent learning in terms of processes of self-regulation. References When teachers ask higher‐order questions and encourage explanations, they help their students develop im- Independent learning Many students have trouble making the transition to the more independent learning required at university compared with their previous study. Independent learning is presented Determination Theory, independent learning Introduction There is a growing body of evidence that high numbers of Australian university students experience elevated levels of psychological distress, and that this distress often begins in the first 17s1: COMP9417 Machine Learning and Data Mining Lectures: Aspects of Learning Theory and Algorithm-Independent Machine Learning – <> The Journal of Higher Education: Vol. When paired with strat-egy instruction and metacognitive processes, instruc-tors have a powerful learning toolkit to share with learners. Vygotsky accepted, “The activity theory calls attention to knowledge that is Higher‐ order questions often start with question stems such as . 56 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 58 /H [ 840 432 ] /L 69316 /E 33678 /N 12 /T 68078 >> endobj xref 56 21 0000000016 00000 n 0000000767 00000 n 0000001272 00000 n 0000001426 00000 n 0000001618 00000 n 0000002020 00000 n 0000002409 00000 n 0000002967 00000 n 0000014084 00000 n 0000014190 00000 n 0000014370 00000 n 0000014670 00000 n 0000015296 00000 n 0000015770 00000 n 0000016422 00000 n 0000016799 00000 n 0000030642 00000 n 0000031199 00000 n 0000031277 00000 n 0000000840 00000 n 0000001251 00000 n trailer << /Size 77 /Info 54 0 R /Root 57 0 R /Prev 68068 /ID[<324f27b331bcf881ea4b35a4226dbda0><1632a9fcd398f9e7f57c30baea238377>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 57 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 52 0 R /Metadata 55 0 R >> endobj 75 0 obj << /S 350 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 76 0 R >> stream Most adult learning theory (e.g. learning is enhanced across content areas. At the end of each unit there’s a dedicated section to help students become more independent learners. <>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 595.32 841.92] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Independent learning is self-directed learning, where an individual can choose what they want to learn, how deeply they wish to learn about something and the methods/processes involved in learning. Robert Mills Gagné was an American educational psychologist who, … Without a strong base in research and theory, distance educati… successful, independent learners. H�b```"V�Y��cc`a�(� (1973). w\�[����,��W������s�γ4)&$YRSs?˒������������H�&ruy'�yV&��KS�_)�*�4ͯV9^g4$�q�F�����\��|��@���2��v�ÿ�ZI|&�x�k����o.5��Z����(=M��10����O�N���1����oIc��g�3}2�/���VW�7�fqsf#��jE�K���I4�y5U����J&<4�Ec,�c�T��dr�'��x ��`C�?���k� ا����m��,Zy��=�'4K�z���8��4�_ǎ�m�p���. Piaget’s theory refers to qualitative periods or stages of development. 9, pp. Originator: Maria Montessori (1870-1952), Italian teacher and physician Keywords: absorbent mind, sensitive period, prepared environment, autoeducation, planes of development So after discussion with many members of staff from my school I have put together my top 5 independent learning activities. They help students – and you – to understand themselves better as learners. Independent learning focuses on the process and not simply the goal. Definitions of Independent Learning – Initial Overview The concept of independ ent learning is not new, but is it one on which there is a surprising lack of consensus as to what it means (Broad, 2006). The tasks help students to understand the benefit of self-reflection and encourage them to give better feedback to peers. X <>>> endobj Self-directed learning allows learners to be more effective learners and social beings. independent reading are examined through classroom observations, teacher and student interviews, a teacher survey, and classroom artifacts. The two major school of thoughts that influence teachers in their instructional scaffolding techniques are the behaviorists and cognitivists. %PDF-1.5 Utilizing a theoretical framework based on ... learning process and specifically on teachers’ classroom use of independent reading. "Independent Learning is that learning in which the learner, in conjunction with relevant others, can make the decisions necessary to meet the learner's own learning needs." The learning is defined, organised and completed by the learner. The behaviorists look bests at regular self-testing and formative feedback. What is the evidence. 3. <> ?�86��Տ������ݼ�e7�޾����$����7����YV���L�T�d��M���o�|�x�/��oo�|��Hî��4���s�f�Y�f��e"�ssه_n�� ���O�Yj����MƋDJMH�U�ʤ����e��@��]�������1H c\&� enjoy learning (Taylor, 1995). Skinner believed that an individual’s behaviour is entirely a product of the objective world and can be understood in objective terms. independent learning in English Nursery and Reception classrooms. 2 0 obj independent learning. The process of learning is an exciting adventure that can be interrupted when the primary focus of the classroom is on the goal. (1996) noted that the self-directed learners in a Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) Summary: The Montessori Method is an approach to learning which emphasizes active learning, independence, cooperation, and learning in harmony with each child’s unique pace of development. View Wk11 Sol.pdf from COMP 9417 at University of New South Wales. These were organised around four or more phases for students to complete including: planning, self-monitoring, controlling the pace and direction of the work and evaluation. Guthrie, et al. This was the first contribution of learning theory in describing personality. $ �B�T��/�HNY ��!��~���WEtl��*�6�k`ۦ�W*����G�2'�L��C�5۶C��Q��R���>U�-�2jq����{��e�j�#�/���&��cw�w�f���Jrn�(�uθ����*yR���WȂ~�y��~A���ۦ���� G��3v�ʢÞ�2�ñߛ��Q�������� .Pz�Ԏu7���Xx�}���/�g��i�[��|�����&��> � There is general consensus in the literature that the goal of education is to increase the students' capacity to learn, to provide them with analytic skills and to increase their ability to deal with new information and draw independent conclusions. 4 0 obj �8%���!�`�ce��/���TLr�k���E( t:��vpsG�_��.h�]��`���x��f'V߶��OK@"���)���. In … Choose your sources carefully. Social Learning Theory of Albert Bandura (1977): Lou (2013) opined that Bandura proposed the concept of social cognitive theory. An independent learning section. If independent learning is not a common feature of your class, then … the different aspects of independent learning, the review investigated the key elements and models of independent learning, the skills required by teachers and learners to make the concept a reality, the role of assessment in independent learning, the impact of independent learning, and the challenges to its 3 0 obj Freire, 1972; Knowles, 1990; Mezirow, 1991) and the concept of independent learning itself should be acknowledged as being predominantly ‘Western’. Gagné’s Conditions of Learning. The development of new technologies has promoted an astounding growth in distance education, both in the number of students enrolling and in the number of universities adding education at a distance to their curriculum (Garrison, 1990). When running an inset training session for staff on independent learning at my school, a common misconception came out that people thought independent learning was the same as group work. 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