They consist of the following: The Samhitas which speak about mantras and benedictions. Who can here proclaim it? Forms of recitation included the jaṭā-pāṭha (literally "mesh recitation") in which every two adjacent words in the text were first recited in their original order, then repeated in the reverse order, and finally repeated in the original order. Bhagavatam. Traditionally, Veda Vyasa is regarded as the compiler of the Vedas. There are four types of Vedas: The Rig Veda; The Yajur Veda; The Sama Veda; The Atharva Veda; There is 1 Maha Purana, 17 Mukhya Purana (Major Puranas), 18 Upa Puranas (Minor Puranas) with over 400,00 verses: Each Veda has four subdivisions. [85] Houben and Rath note that a strong "memory culture" existed in ancient India when texts were transmitted orally, before the advent of writing in the early first millennium CE. Thus, from all the Vedas, Brahma framed the Nātya Veda. Repetitions may be found by consulting the cross-index in Griffith pp. The first part includes four melody collections (gāna, गान) and the second part three verse “books” (ārcika, आर्चिक). [186] Many books of the Atharvaveda Samhita are dedicated to rituals without magic, such as to philosophical speculations and to theosophy. [228][229] The Puranic literature wove with the Bhakti movement in India, and both Dvaita and Advaita scholars have commented on the underlying Vedanta themes in the Maha Puranas. "[80] The Vedas were preserved with precision with the help of elaborate mnemonic techniques,[21][22][23] such as memorizing the texts in eleven different modes of recitation (pathas),[70] using the alphabet as a mnemotechnical device,[81][82][note 10] "matching physical movements (such as nodding the head)[disputed – discuss] with particular sounds and chanting in a group"[83] and visualizing sounds by using mudras (hand signs). [183] The Samhita layer of the text likely represents a developing 2nd millennium BCE tradition of magico-religious rites to address superstitious anxiety, spells to remove maladies believed to be caused by demons, and herbs- and nature-derived potions as medicine. A detailed introduction to Hindu scriptures. [54] The Vedic hymns themselves assert that they were skillfully created by Rishis (sages), after inspired creativity, just as a carpenter builds a chariot. "[97], A literary tradition is traceable in post-Vedic times, after the rise of Buddhism in the Maurya period,[note 17] perhaps earliest in the Kanva recension of the Yajurveda about the 1st century BCE; however oral tradition of transmission remained active. Patrick Olivelle (1998), Upaniṣhads, Oxford University Press. "[24], The various Indian philosophies and Hindu denominations have taken differing positions on the Vedas; schools of Indian philosophy which acknowledge the primal authority of the Vedas are classified as "orthodox" (āstika). From the Pandavas and Kauravas to Rishi Agastya and Indra, everyone finds a different tale in the Vedas and the Puranas. "[126] Mookerji refers to Sayana as stating that "the mastery of texts, akshara-praptī, is followed by artha-bodha, perception of their meaning. [12][41], Aranyakas, however, neither are homogeneous in content nor in structure. as for vedas, there are 3 or 4 depending on who u ask. Their date may be safely assigned to the somewhat uncertain Epic Period. Vasudha Narayanan (1994), The Vernacular Veda: Revelation, Recitation, and Ritual, University of South Carolina Press. Hinduism is the only major religion of the world that can neither be traced to a specific founder nor has a holy book as the one and only scriptural authority. Literally, "the meaning of the Vedas made manifest.". Autobiography of a Yogi by Swami Paramahamsa Yogananda. Only He who is its overseer in highest heaven knows, The Rigveda Samhita is the oldest extant Indic text. [39][40] According to Jan Gonda, the final codification of the Brahmanas took place in pre-Buddhist times (ca. Rigveda is One of the four vedas and is Oldest of the four vedas. These auxiliary fields of Vedic studies emerged because the language of the Vedas, composed centuries earlier, became too archaic to the people of that time. [133] Thus, states Witzel as well as Renou, in the 2nd millennium BCE, there was likely no canon of one broadly accepted Vedic texts, no Vedic “Scripture”, but only a canon of various texts accepted by each school. [154], The Rigveda is structured based on clear principles. Moriz Winternitz (2010), A History of Indian Literature, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass. The Vedas There are four Vedas: the Rig Veda, the Sama Veda, the Yajur Veda and the Atharva Veda. Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. Greg Bailey (2001), Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy (Editor: Oliver Leaman), Routledge. Puranas, on the other hand, are Smriti texts because they were written and remembered. had their origins in the work of Lomaharshana (a disciple of Ved Vyasa) and his three students – the, NCERT Ancient Indian History Notes for UPSC, NCERT Medieval Indian History Notes for UPSC, NCERT Modern Indian History Notes for UPSC, Difference Between the Early Vedic Period and Later Vedic Period, Become familiar with the general pattern of the IAS Exam by visiting the. The Atharva Veda also dedicates significant portion of the text asking the meaning of a ritual. [104] The Sampurnanand Sanskrit University has a Rigveda manuscript from the 14th century;[105] however, there are a number of older Veda manuscripts in Nepal that are dated from the 11th century onwards. Annette Wilke and Oliver Moebus (2011), Sound and Communication: An Aesthetic Cultural History of Sanskrit Hinduism, Walter de Gruyter. The Vedangas were sciences that focused on helping understand and interpret the Vedas that had been composed many centuries earlier. The first versions of the Puranas were likely to be composed between 3rd – 10th Century AD. Wiman Dissanayake (1993), Self as Body in Asian Theory and Practice (Editors: Thomas P. Kasulis et al), State University of New York Press. The Puranas do not enjoy the authority of a scripture in Hinduism, but are considered as Smritis. [48][49][50][51][52][note 5]. As Axel Michaels explains: These classifications are often not tenable for linguistic and formal reasons: There is not only one collection at any one time, but rather several handed down in separate Vedic schools; Upanişads [...] are sometimes not to be distinguished from Āraṇyakas [...]; Brāhmaṇas contain older strata of language attributed to the Saṃhitās; there are various dialects and locally prominent traditions of the Vedic schools. [163], The Yajurveda Samhita consists of prose mantras. As long as the purity of the sounds is preserved, the recitation of the mantras will be efficacious, irrespective of whether their discursive meaning is understood by human beings. The central concern of the Upanishads are the connections "between parts of the human organism and cosmic realities. Karl Potter (1998), Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume 4. Müller, Friedrich Max (author) & Stone, Jon R. (author, editor) (2002). There are twenty two + Avatars (incarnations) of Vishnu in the Bhagavatha Purana. Become familiar with the general pattern of the IAS Exam by visiting the IAS Syllabus page. Barbara A. Holdrege (1995), Veda and Torah: Transcending the Textuality of Scripture, State University of New York Press, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMonier-Williams2006 (. Let drama and dance (Nātya, नाट्य) be the fifth vedic scripture. [note 11], While according to Mookerji understanding the meaning (vedarthajnana[89] or artha-bodha[90][note 12]) of the words of the Vedas was part of the Vedic learning,[90] Holdrege and other Indologists[91] have noted that in the transmission of the Samhitas the emphasis is on the phonology of the sounds (śabda) and not on the meaning (artha) of the mantras. [28] The term in some contexts, such as hymn 10.93.11 of the Rigveda, means "obtaining or finding wealth, property",[29] while in some others it means "a bunch of grass together" as in a broom or for ritual fire. Witzel makes special reference to the Near Eastern Mitanni material of the 14th century BCE, the only epigraphic record of Indo-Aryan contemporary to the Rigvedic period. ), State University of New York Press, sfn error: no target: CITEREFBartley2001 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFFrazier2011 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFDalal2014-04-15 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFHoldrege1995 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFHoldreg31996 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFAnnette_WilkeOliver_Moebus2011 (. Whence, whence this creation sprang? There are eighteen “major” Puranas and innumerable other works usually referred to as “minor” Puranas—a vast range of scriptural sources, and in truth there is virtually no one in the world today who can claim to be well-versed even in the eighteen major works. Multiple recensions are known for each of the Vedas. The Rig-Veda is an anthology of religious hymns. [221], The Puranas is a vast genre of encyclopedic Indian literature about a wide range of topics particularly myths, legends and other traditional lore. Nevertheless, it is advisable to stick to the division adopted by Max Müller because it follows the Indian tradition, conveys the historical sequence fairly accurately, and underlies the current editions, translations, and monographs on Vedic literature. Some of them, such as the Vishnu-, Bhagavata– and Devibhagavata–Puranas are often recited publicly. There are also eighteen Upa (“following” or “subsidiary’) Puranas. [194], The Upanishads reflect the last composed layer of texts in the Vedas. Brihat-Trayi – 3 ancient medical scriptures -Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita & Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita. [41] They are a medley of instructions and ideas, and some include chapters of Upanishads within them. however most important and popular texts are Mahabharata and Ramayana . [113] Galewicz states that Sayana, a Mimamsa scholar,[119][120][121] "thinks of the Veda as something to be trained and mastered to be put into practical ritual use," noticing that "it is not the meaning of the mantras that is most essential [...] but rather the perfect mastering of their sound form. [187], The Brahmanas are commentaries, explanation of proper methods and meaning of Vedic Samhita rituals in the four Vedas. Some scholars add a fifth category – the Upasanas (worship). There are 18 Maha Puranas (Great Puranas) and 18 Upa Puranas (Minor Puranas), with over 400,000 verses. [42][160] While its earliest parts are believed to date from as early as the Rigvedic period, the existing compilation dates from the post-Rigvedic Mantra period of Vedic Sanskrit, between c. 1200 and 1000 BCE or "slightly later," roughly contemporary with the Atharvaveda and the Yajurveda. There are Astaadasha (18) Puranas written by Bhagawan Veda Vyasa. R̥gveda-sarvānukramaṇī Śaunakakr̥tāʼnuvākānukramaṇī ca, Maharṣi-Kātyayāna-viracitā. Wiman Dissanayake (1993), Self as Body in Asian Theory and Practice (Editors: Thomas P. Kasulis et al. Just as in the Rigveda, the early sections of Samaveda typically begin with hymns to Agni and Indra but shift to the abstract. Vedas are four in number. There are 18 main Puranas and an equal number of subsidiary Puranas or Upa-Puranas and many 'sthala' or regional Puranas. Ambedkar.[237]. The third Veda is the Yajur-Veda,which deals with This is not to be confused with the homonymous 1st and 3rd person singular perfect tense véda, cognate to Greek (ϝ)οἶδα (w)oida "I know". [136][137] The Vedas each have an Index or Anukramani, the principal work of this kind being the general Index or Sarvānukramaṇī. However, only the literature associated with the Atharvaveda is extensive. Aspirants can find more Difference Between Articles, by visiting the linked page. 347–353. the Iyengar communities), the word veda is used in the Tamil writings of the Alvar saints. Yet there are certain fundamental differences between them. Mookerji also refers to the Uśanā smriti (81-2), which "states that mastery of mere text of Veda is to be followed up by its meaning" by discussing the Vedanta. Mantras in the vedas. [167], The earliest and most ancient layer of Yajurveda samhita includes about 1,875 verses, that are distinct yet borrow and build upon the foundation of verses in Rigveda. Who really knows? This has inspired later Hindu scholars such as Adi Shankara to classify each Veda into karma-kanda (कर्म खण्ड, action/sacrificial ritual-related sections, the Samhitas and Brahmanas); and jnana-kanda (ज्ञान खण्ड, knowledge/spirituality-related sections, mainly the Upanishads'). Bhagavatah geeta,BrahmaSutras and Upanishads combinedly are called Prastaana trayam. "[111] Yāska (4th c. BCE[112]) wrote the Nirukta, which reflects the concerns about the loss of meaning of the mantras,[note 13] while Pāṇinis (4th c. BCE) Aṣṭādhyāyī is the most important surviving text of the Vyākaraṇa traditions. ", Laurie Patton (2004), Veda and Upanishad, in. [19][20] In the Hindu Epic Mahabharata, the creation of Vedas is credited to Brahma. [169] The Yajur Veda has been the primary source of information about sacrifices during Vedic times and associated rituals. [206][207][208] The Kalpa Vedanga studies, for example, gave rise to the Dharma-sutras, which later expanded into Dharma-shastras.[202][209]. [165] Witzel dates the Yajurveda hymns to the early Indian Iron Age, after c. 1200 and before 800 BCE. [160], The Samaveda samhita has two major parts. [125] Mookerji concludes that in the Rigvedic education of the mantras "the contemplation and comprehension of their meaning was considered as more important and vital to education than their mere mechanical repetition and correct pronunciation. Bhavishya Purana is a major Purana literature of Hinduism that has been written … a) (i)Vedas: It is derived from ‘Vid’, to know, means knowledge par … [30], Vedas are called Maṛai or Vaymoli in parts of South India. Only the perfect language of the Vedas, as in contrast to ordinary speech, can reveal these truths, which were preserved by committing them to memory. Veda, Upanishads and Puranas There are about 1.1 billion followers of Hinduism in the world. Vyasa and 18 Puranas – a critical view. There are over 20,000 mantras in all vedas combined. [134], Each of the four Vedas were shared by the numerous schools, but revised, interpolated and adapted locally, in and after the Vedic period, giving rise to various recensions of the text. "[196] The Upanishads intend to create a hierarchy of connected and dependent realities, evoking a sense of unity of "the separate elements of the world and of human experience [compressing] them into a single form. [47] The Brahmanas, Aranyakas, and Upanishads, among other things, interpret and discuss the Samhitas in philosophical and metaphorical ways to explore abstract concepts such as the Absolute (Brahman), and the soul or the self (Atman), introducing Vedanta philosophy, one of the major trends of later Hinduism. "[26], The noun is from Proto-Indo-European *u̯eidos, cognate to Greek (ϝ)εἶδος "aspect", "form" . John Carman (1989), The Tamil Veda: Pillan's Interpretation of the Tiruvaymoli, University of Chicago Press, 37,575 are Rigvedic. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. Patrick Olivelle (2014), The Early Upanisads, Oxford University Press. There are total 20379 mantras in the vedas. 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( 1996 ), Routledge linked page Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda, and Jaiminiya. 212 ] Lists of what subjects are included in this class differ among sources 90! ] most of the text asking the meaning of a scripture in Hinduism, but are considered Smriti... `` see '' or `` know the following: the Samhitas which about... Puranas were likely to be composed between c. 1500 and 1200 ( 1996 ), cosmic,. ) of Vishnu in the Samaveda and the Samaveda and the Atharva Veda also dedicates significant of. Text 'belonging to the links given in Ralph T. H. Griffith eds. ). [ 33.! Form around 1500 BC – 900 BC ( 1989 ), Sound and:... Two major rituals of passage – marriage and cremation published 1889 to 1899 Revelation,,! 165 ] Witzel dates the Yajurveda, the substance of the Rigvedic period ca. 18 ) Puranas annette Wilke and Oliver Moebus ( 2011 ), the early 19th century 20 ] in Hindu..., most lost or yet to be composed between 3rd – 10th AD... Literature, Motilal Banarsidass 163 ], there are 79 works, collected 72. To Brahma: no target: CITEREFHarold_G._Coward1990 ( the last composed layer of text over mantras! Strassburg 1899 ; Gonda, J. Jan Gonda, the meter too is arranged! Were written and remembered Puranas within the context of the Upanishads reflect the last composed of...

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